Car engine cooling system structure and working principle
In terms of design, there are practically no any difference between the cooling systems of diesel and petrol engines. So not going to focus on minor differences, and we describe the overall design of cooling systems for the internal combustion engine.
cooling System – principle of operation
the Principle of operation of the cooling system is in cooling the engine by a forced circulation of water through the cooling jacket in the longitudinal (from the first to the last cylinder or transverse direction (prom – the intake manifold).
The first time after engine starting fluid is circulated through the small range, bypassing the radiator. The thermostat is in the idle position. As heat is opening up the thermostat, and starts the circulation of the great circle. Heated in a shirt cooling liquid passes through the radiator, which cools the oncoming air. If necessary, use and air flow from the fan. Next, it uses liquid cooled again enters the cooling jacket, and this cycle is repeated until the completion of the operation.
Radiator and all that is connected with it
This element is the basis of the cooling system and designed for cooling the circulating fluid (water, antifreeze) by passage through a special tubular device. In addition to the main radiator in the system are usually present radiators – oil and exhaust gases. The first is used for cooling oil in the lubrication system. Radiator recycling reduces the temperature of the exhaust gases to lower the temperature of nitrogen oxide formation and combustion of the fuel-air mixture. The functionality of the heatsink ensures that the work of the auxiliary pump fluid circulation in the cooling system.
Directly to the radiator can be attributed heat exchanger heating system, although their functions are directly opposite. The task of the heat exchanger is to heat the air pumped through the fan, heating of a car. For this is used the heated fluid in the radiator, and the heat exchanger is located directly at the point of exit from the engine.
Cool the engine. Components of circulation of a liquid
As you know, the liquid in the process of heating expands and increases in volume. To compensate for this system is expansion tank, which provides filling systems. The very same circulation is provided by the centrifugal pump, often referred to as a pump. If there turbocharging system may be present and additional circulation pump, cooling turbocharger and pressurized air.
the Amount of coolant necessary for maintenance of optimum temperature of the engine is controlled by the thermostat located at the connection between jacket cooling and heat sink. The thermostat can have electric heater is used for its rapid transition to the fully open position at maximum load on the engine. Fan, which can be a mechanical, electric or hydraulic drive, increases the intensity of cooling radiator.
Control cooling system
the Standard components of the control system of cooling are:
- the coolant temperature sensor;
- the electronic block of management – adopts the sensor signal and gives the command to actuators;
- Executive devices – heating thermostat relay engine cooling after the stop, block fan control relay auxiliary pump and so on.
The same principle of management is based on mathematical modeling and takes into account all the necessary parameters (temperature liquid, oil, outdoor air and so on) for optimal cooling of the engine.